1.Counterfeiter- The counterfeiter duplicates the leader’s product package and sells it on the black market or through disreputable dealers. Music records firm, Apple Computer and Rolex have been plagued with the counterfeiter problem, especially in Asia.
2.Cloner- The cloner emulates the leader’s product, name, and packaging, with slight variations.
3.Imitator- The imitator copies some things from the leader but maintains differentiation in terms of packaging, advertising, pricing, or location. The leader does not mind the imitator as long as the imitator attacks the leader.
4.Adapter- The adapter takes the leader’s products and adapts or improves them. The adapter may choose to sell to different markets, but often the adapter grows into the future challenger, as many Japanese firms have done after adapting and improving products developed elsewhere.